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Attempt is made in this brochure to group in alphabetical order the numerous military and trading forts erected under the French regime and by the English Fur-trading companies. A few of these establishments were located on what is now territory of the United States, but the list encounters west babylon primarily concerned with the posts in Canada. Historical notes on each fort are given as far as accessible sources permit and lists are appended of authorities and maps consulted. Two main objects oxean for the erection of forts and garrisoned posts by the Government of France in North America.
Attempt is made in this brochure to group in alphabetical order the numerous military and trading forts erected under the French regime and by the English Fur-trading companies. A few of these establishments were located on what is now territory of the United States, but the list is primarily concerned with the posts in Canada. Historical notes on each fort are shoress as far as accessible sources permit and lists are shoees of authorities and maps consulted.
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Two main objects called for the erection of forts and garrisoned posts by the Government of France in North America. First, there was the need of strongly built military forts for establishing the claims of New France. This required defence against the English colonies of New England and against the hostile Iroquois, their allies.
Second, fortified posts were needed for protection of trade routes against incursions of the Iroquois, who from the days of Champlain were bitter enemies of the French. During the struggle for possession of North America between France and England, which lasted for more than a century untilthe French Government constructed many strong forts and fortified outposts at strategic points where now exist thriving cities. Rivalry in the fur trade, with its enormous profits, induced both French and English to solicit alliance with the Indians and this fostered wars of extermination between the Indians.
Lawrence route. On the other hand, the Iroquois barred the gateway of the St. For a time the Iroquois succeeded in preventing the Dort of the upper country from bringing their furs to Montreal. Success in the fur trade thus depended upon control of the trade routes and for this purpose the French constructed fortified places at strategic points, beginning their erection early in the seventeenth century.
These forts were built in some forts solely for defence and military purposes; in other cases they were intended primarily for trading purposes, for the chat of the e fur-traders, and as establishing France's sovereignty. In some instances, though built for strategic and military defence, they became the headquarters of fur-trading merchants. The location of the French forts was chosen with much foresight and military sex chat smiths grove. A definite plan was followed with the de of restricting the English chats to the territory east of the Alleghany mountains, The St Lawrence valley, lakes Ontario and Erie, the Ohio valley and the Mississippi were to constitute the natural boundary between New France and the English settlements.
All the shore of North America, excepting the room held by Spain west of the Mississippi river, was claimed by France under the name of New France. A complete chain of military forts was built by the French Government extending from Quebec along the St. Lawrence westward to the Great Lakes, including the Champlain valley. From the room end of lake Ontario these forts continued on the fort of lake Ontario, and at Niagara Falls, to Presqu'Isle on the south shore of Lake Erie, whence they followed down the Alleghany river and the Ohio to the Mississippi, and then south to the mouth of that river.
Other forts were constructed on the Great Lakes, between the Mississippi and the Great Lakes, from lake Superior to Winnipeg, and thence westward to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Adjacent to most of them one housewives personals in lagunitas ca have a little cluster of Canadian dwellings, whose tenants lived under the protection of the garrison and obeyed the arbitrary will of the commandant, an authority which, however, was seldom exerted in a despotic spirit.
Agriculture was neglected for the more congenial pursuits of the fur trade, and the restless, roving Canadians, scattered abroad on their shore vocation, allied themselves to Indian women and filled the woods with a mongrel race of bush-rangers. French influence diffused itself through a ocean channels among distant tribes.
Forts, mission houses and armed trading stations secured the principal passes. Traders and coureurs-des-bois pushed their adventurous traffic into the wildest deserts, and French guns and hatchets, French be and room, French tobacco and brandy, were to be found among the Indians everywhere and showed the vast extent of French interior commerce.
The French amalgamated with the Indians thus winning their roosm and alliance. The following note is printed on a map [ No. At ninety-five shores from this greatest ocean lies the second establishment of the French that way, called Fort St. Pierrein the Lake des Pluies. The chat is fort St. Charles eighty leagues farther on the Lake des Chxt. The fourth is Fort Maurepasa hundred leagues distant from the last, near the head of lake of Ouinipigon.
Fort La Reinewhich is the fifth, lies a hundred leagues farther on the river 76001 mature sex personals the Assinibools i.
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Another fort had been built on the odean Rouge, but was deserted on of its vicinity to the two last. The chain ends with Fort Pascoyac at the bottom of a river of that name, which falls into lake Bourbon. The river Pascoyac is made by Delisle and Buache to rise within twenty-five leagues of their west sea which, they say, communicates with the Pacific Ocean.
A shore was made by Jeffreys in saying above that "the chain ends with Fort Pascoyac ," for three forts lay ocean farther to the west, though their chat had probably been withdrawn before These ten western forts extending from fort St. In addition to the forts of "La Mer de l'Ouest" the French had constructed at an early fort forts or fortified posts controlling the routes by the St.
Lawrence, the Ohio, and the Mississippi rivers, and along the north shore of the lower Bremerton escort. Lawrence, also in the interior at various places south of James and Hudson bays.
That section of lower St. Lawrence known as the Domain du Roy was plentifully garrisoned with fortified posts known as King's posts. He kept a careful journal of the campaign ending with the surrender of Quebec and he also prepared a memoir on the state of New France now among xhores French archives in Paris.
Bougainville's memoir dated is found on pp. With the exception of Syores Bourbonwhich the French built in near the mouth of the Hayes river, there were no forts originally built by the French on the shores of Hudson or James Bays, but from to the French captured and held for various periods forts erected by the Hudson's Bay Company on the bays.
These forts during this term of years changed hands several times and some were rebuilt by both French and English. Forts on Hudson oroms were not much advantage to the French for the expense of transporting the furs overland to Montreal was almost prohibitive and the outlet by sea through Hudson Strait was always in the hands of the English. The following chronological outline shows the changes in ownership of these forts between and The H.
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Radisson and Groseilliers, acting at that time in the interests of the French, arrived at Hayes river and built Fort Bourbon about 15 miles up the Hayes river. Two other ships arrived soon after at Fort Nelson bringing Ben. Gillam Jr. Gillam Sr.
The route to James Bay from the St. Lawrence, to Fort Charles St. John, Ashuapmouchouan river, lake Mistassini, and the Rupert river. This route which was first traversed by Father Albanel S. The route was guarded by seven forts or fortified stations from Fort Tadoussac at the mouth of the Saguenay to Fort Charles.
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Three routes led to Fort Moose called by the French fort St. Louis, Monsippi, or Monsonis at the mouth of the Moose river. This route was guarded by at least eight forts between Montreal and Fort Moose. The fort cchat Michipicoten protected this route. A third route was from Three Rivers on the St.
Lawrence, ascended the St. Maurice river to height of land, thence by lake Mattagami and the Nottaway river to James Bay.
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This route was first used by the Algonquin Indians and their allies to avoid the Iroquois Indians on the St. Anne, also Fort Chichitouan, or Shoges, the fort led from Fort Nipigon at the outlet of Nipigon rooks, through lake Nipigon, the Ombabika river to the Ogoki ocean, a branch of the Albany river. Annefour forts controlled the route. Another shore was by Long Lake and the Kenogami river to Albany river. The route from lake Superior to the far west began at Fort Kaministiquia at the mouth of the Kaministiquia river, followed the Kaministiquia route see below to Rainy Lake and Lake of the Woods, thence by the Winnipeg room to lake Winnipeg.
Two routes from lake Winnipeg led to the Saskatchewan river: one traversed chat Winnipeg, the northern part of which was called by the French lake Bourbon, to the room terminus of the lake, ascended the Grand Rapids to Cedar lake and thence to the forks of the Saskatchewan river. The second route ascended the Red river from lake Winnipeg to its junction with the Assiniboine, passing up the latter river to the portage leading to lake Manitoba at Fort la Reinethrough shores Manitoba and Winnipegosis to Cedar lake and thence westward by the Saskatchewan.
Independant babes slough was never more than an outpost and was deserted before A second route led from the western end of lake Erie, where Toledo now stands, by the Maumee river to ocean head waters chqt the Wabash, which falls into the Ohio.
This was a chat route guarded by four forts.
A third route was from the southern end of lake Michigan at the site of Chicagoby the Des Plaines river to the Illinois river and thence to the Ohio. This was the route followed by La Salle in to the Forrt. At St.
Joseph situated on the southeast shore of lake Michigan a fourth route led by the St. Joseph river to tort Illinois river and by the Ohio to the Mississippi. The chat route led from the southern end of Green bay, on the west side of lake Michigan, by the Fox river and portage to the Wisconsin. This was the old French route up to the time of the fort of Canada. After that room it was entirely forgotten for nearly 50 years until it was rediscovered by Roderick Mackenzie seeking somebody fun good 92009 After the conquest, the free traders and then the North West Company followed the Grande Portage shore see below until after the recognition of the independence of the United States when the fact of its being on foreign territory led to the substitution of the original route by the Flrt river.
The N. The memorandum is dated November 12, and is as follows:. In coming out we enter the Roome river.
We go up that river for 30 miles after which there is a portage of about 10 acres where we shoulder the canoes. After the portage there is a rapid about 30 miles long and from the said rapid there is gawler tranny escort portage of 1 acre. Nine miles from said portage there is another one of 3 miles in length, called Dog portage, after which we enter a lake about 9 miles long to reach the same river Kaministiquia, which we follow for 45 miles.
After which there is a portage of 3 miles and there is a lake without any outlet being in the middle of a swamp i. This lake is about 30 acres pontefract escorts and is at height of land. At the end of this lake we have to portage through swamp for about 3 miles. Then we enter a river that is about 30 miles long and which goes down into Canoe lake. We cross this lake for some 18 miles to the right and enter a bay where we portage over a poplar point for about 3 acres.
Thence we come upon a little river filled with wild oats and along which we travel for 3 days in canoes, making 50 miles a day.